University of the Punjab:
Part 1 A/2016 Examination: B.A/BSc. Time Allowed 3 hrs. Maximum Marks. 100
Subject: English Language-1 Paper: English Language-1
Note: Attempt all questions from Section A and B
- # 1: Explain with reference to the context any THREE of the following:
Storm blow me from here
With your fiercest wind
Let me float across the sky
Till I can rest again.
These lines have taken from the poem “Women Work” written by Maya Angelou.
The poetess describes her daily routine or activities. She leads very hard life. She has every day to attend to her children, arrange and mend their clothes, clean the floor and buy the buy food from the shop. In this way, she spends a mechanical and dull life. There is no moment of rest and leisure in her life.
She wishes to enjoy herself in natural objects. She implores to the storm to take her way with its fiercest wind. She wants to float across the sky. So, that she may take rest. She is fed up with her daily routine life; she likes to be in nature. Nature is a source of happiness in its every shape. Whether the wind is fiercest or not, it will provide a blessing for human beings.
She is not satisfied with her domestic cares, and no one from her close companions is helping her. So, she wishes the company of natural objects. She thinks that nature can give her real relaxation and internal peace of mind.
I lost two cities, lovely ones, and vaster,
Some realms I owned, two rivers, a continent
I miss them but it wasn’t disaster.
These lines have been taken from the poem ‘One Art’ written by Elizabeth Bishop.
The poetess discusses different ways to common experiences of losses that we suffer in life. She advises us to be patient and calm at the loss of material things. We can overcome the pains and problems of life if we exercise patience over our small losses. She tries to convince us that the art of losing things is not very difficult. The poetess discusses different ways to common experiences of losses that we suffer in life. She advises us to be patient and calm at the loss of material things. We can overcome the pains and problems of life if we exercise patience over our small losses. She tries to convince us that the art of losing things is not very difficult.
The poetess is exaggerating (overstressing) this point. She mentions that she loses two beautiful, lovely and vast cities. She lost her realm, two rivers, and continent. All these were big losses, but she did not care them. Although, she missed them, yet it was not a big problem for her. Through these losing objects, the poetess is conveying a lesson to bear even the greatest losses with smiling face.
Perhaps the plaintive numbers flow
For old unhappy, far-off things
And battles long ago
These lines have been taken from the poem ‘ Solitary Reaper’ written by William Words Worth.
The poet describes the beautiful manner of the lonely young mountain girl cutting the crop and singing lonely. The poet didn’t understand the song but was much inspired by her beauty of the song. He recalled the joy which the song gave to him, even after he left the valley.
The poet did not know the Scottish language so, he could not judge, what the girl was singing. He guesses that she is complaining about for off things or she is singing about the battles. The poet is not sure. What is she singing? He guesses that she is singing about an ordinary matter or some natural sorrow, loss or pain. This tragedy had come and will come.
Actually, Willaim Words Worth did not know the Scottish language, but the song was so impressive that he could not help praising it. Even he could not know what was she singing, but he was much impressed.
# 2: Attempt any TWO of the following questions. (150 words)
- a) “The Duchess and the Jeweler” with the theme of the rise of the middle class: Discuss:
No doubt, the writer of the story “The Duchess and the Jeweler” reflects the English society of her time. It was an age of change. The high-ups were coming down because of their moral corruption, and the common herd was taking the lead in spite of their mental fascinations. The English aristocracy (اعلٰی طبقہ) of those days suffered from many social and moral vices (برائیاں). It was the age of transition. The high-ups were coming down because of their moral decadence ((اخلاقی گراوٹ and commoners were taking the lead in spite of their psychological fixation (نفسیاتی بیماری). It throws light on the great up heals in English social caused by the industrial revolution.
To fulfill her persistence, the writer introduces characters – the Duchess and the Jeweler. The Duchess characterizes the high-ups. The jeweler describes the commoners. His name is Oliver Bacon. At the start of the story, the writer talks about citizens through Oliver Bacon, the jeweler. She tells the reader how the citizens took the lead. Oliver Bacon was a commoner because he used to live in a dirty, little alley. Then slowly he took the lead and became one of the high-ups of the English society. Now he lived at Piccadilly. It was the most stylish and luxurious place in London.
We also find another character, the Duchess, who represents aristocracy of England. She fell from the social and material pedestal with the passage of time. She tried to maintain her old traditions and customs in spite of the growing monetary (مالی) weakness. She began to sell the family jewels and pearls. Now to arrange for money, she sold fake pearls twice. However, this was not all. She had so much more decadence when she used her daughter for own sake and persuaded (ترغیب دی) Oliver, “you’ll come for a long weekend? Alone in the woods with Diana!” Riding alone in the woods with Diana!”
Therefore, we conclude that writer has very beautifully reflected the English society of for the time. The old aristocratic class found it difficult to survive. Their limited income from lands was found insufficient to meet their pomp and show. Therefore, they have moral dependence for an artificial aristocracy.
- Discuss the atmosphere of suspense and horror in “The Killers.”
The Killers’ is full of suspense, horror, and terror. Suspense, horror, and terror prevail (چھا جانا) to reader’s mind in the very initial stage, when the killers enter and sit at the counter despite (بجائے) dining chairs. The demand of wrong dishes, by Al and Max on an improper time also creates suspense to the reader. We also see both men are absolutely (مکمل طور پر) ignorant not only of that place but also about town. Al’s remarks “what do they call it?” is also shocks the reader that if they do not know about that place how they can reach to that location. Then we see their shocking (پریشان کردینے والی) eating habit, “both men ate with their gloves on.” It shocks not only George but also the reader. Nobody knows the critical situation that what is happening with him or her. They also create suspense after departing of killers without killing Ole Andreson; Nick goes to inform Ole, he shows no sign of any horror or wonder. Nick thinks, ‘Maybe it was just a bluff,’ but Ole himself confirms (تصدیق کرنا), ‘no. It ain’t just a bluff ’. Ole also does tell the reason of his killing. This situation also creates suspense; Nick also wonders if Ole already knows, why does he not try to run away? The reader also feels suspense and uncertainty.
So all these elements show, this story is full of suspense and horror.
# 3: Attempt any TWO of the following questions. (150 words)
a) Discuss the theme of “Departure and Arrival.”
Answer: Like Words Worth, Eliot believes poetry to be the (natural) overflow of powerful feelings. His poem ‘Departure and Arrival’ seems to be the practical manifestation of it. He turns all the conceptual images into perceptual (awareness) ones. The extra-sensory are made sensory (sensibleness) and thus the powerful feelings about the abstract find their ventilation in the form of the palpable (obvious) and concrete through beautiful metaphors and similes.
T.S. Eliot carefully expresses idealism and commitment to ensure a bright future for man. Faith and idealism are very essentials. If a man has faith, idealism, and optimism, he can be useful for his nation.
The way of progressing is complicated and tortuous, but if the sons of this century are ready, they can still do wonders. The poet urges the reader to work for the welfare of the world and his whole nation. Nations and individuals wither away and perish without a vision. It is the duty of modern man to work hard with full devotion for the brighter future. Whoever is struggling will remember this struggle in the part of his life. Planning is an essential component to making this world a better place. His plan helps to create a good and fruitful atmosphere for the world. Eliot’s powerful feelings listen to the great call of the 20th century. It needs the maternal love that likes to dower its children in a better way. The pot is of the opinion that we should work, what so ever, who so ever, we have been or have done. The poet wants to see this world an ideal place.
C: discuss “Patriot into Traitor”, as a dramatic monologue.
Robert Browning earned fame by establishing the dramatic monolog as a literary form though he did not invent it, he made it especially his own. It is a speech by a person at a critical moment in his life and is addressed to the silent audience whose identity is not betrayed. The speaker reviews his situation and tries to justify his action to the silent listener. Like a dialogue in play, a monolog develops the plot, reveals the tragic flaws of the protagonist (leading role), shows the internal conflict or the journey from prosperity to adversity and presents the ultimate end under the principle of probability. It is different from soliloquy (solitary) for it is longer and thus provides a failure scope for the character portrayal (picture) and analysis of motives and emotions. A soliloquy is a private debate, a dialogue of the mind with itself and shows only the mind of the character.
The poem ‘Patriot into Traitor’ is a superb dramatic monolog for it presents the tragic drama of the turning of a beloved hero into a condemned traitor. The fallen leader talks about his downfall. He compares the day of his disgrace with that of his triumph when his path was strewn (scattered) with flowers. People flocked there to greet him in a way that the roofs heaved under them. Myriad flags incendiary colors were there to welcome him. His tragic flaw (fault) was that he leaped at the sun. So within the passage of just one year, everything has changed. His hands are tied up at his back. The rope cuts his wrists, and his brow bleeds, or he has been hit with stones. With three exceptions of few palsied persons, there is no one to see him. He is being pulled to the gallows, but he consoles himself that he will be rewarded positively in the court of God.
Browning succeeds in vividly portraying the rise and fall of the Patriot through a dramatic description of the events. Thus the poem becomes a perfect dramatic monolog that presents the spectacle (sight), the development of the plot and ultimate end.
Q # 4: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given at the end:
Envy is, of course, closely connected with the competition. We do not envy a good fortune which we conceive as quite hopelessly out of our reach. In an age when the social hierarchy is fixed, the lowest classes do not envy the upper classes so long as the division between rich and poor is thought to be ordained by God. Beggars do not envy the millionaires, though, of course, they will envy the other baggers who are more successful. The instability of social status in the modern world, and the equalitarian doctrine of the democracy and socialism have greatly extended the range of envy. For the moment, this is an evil; it is an evil, which must be endured in order to arrive at more to social system. As soon as inequalities are thought about rationally, they are seen to be unjust unless they rest upon some superiority of merit. As soon as they are seen to be unjust, there is no remedy for the resulting expects the removal of injustice. Our age is therefore, one in which envy plays a peculiarly large part. The poor envy rich, the poorer nations envy the richer nations, women envy men, virtuous women envy those, who though not virtuous remained unpunished. While it is true that envy is a chief motive force leading to justice as between different classes , different nations, and different sexes, it is at the same time true that the kind of justice to be expected as a result of envy is likely to be worst possible kind, namely that which consist of rather in diminishing the pleasure of the fortunate than in increasing those of the unfortunate. Passions which work havoc is private life work havoc in public life also. It is not to be supposed that out of something as evil as envy good result will flow. Those, therefore, who from idealistic reasons desire profound changes in our social system, and a great increase of social justice, must hope that other forces that envy will be instrumental bringing the changes about.
What is envy?
Answer: The Envy is a feeling of discontented or resentful longing aroused by someone else’s possessions, qualities, or luck.
Q: What causes envy in the modern life?
Answers: The instability of social status causes the envy in modern life.
Q: what has extended the range of envy?
Answer: The equalitarian doctrine of the democracy and the socialism has greatly extended the range of envy in modern life.
Q: How do passions, which cause havoc in private life, become destructive in public life?
Answer: Passions, which work havoc, is private life work havoc in public life also because when they find no justice and remedy or the resulting expects the removal of injustice.
Question: Share your feelings on the emotion of envy?
Answer: every person has his way to having the sense of the feeling of envy. Some envy to other due to their wealth, some due to the beauty, some due to the status and fame, but I always have my feeling on the emotions to envy in a positive way. When I listen to someone that he has gained the real bliss of Allah with his true faith, I emotionally crave and pray to Allah to give me also His real bliss.
Question: Make the précis of the above passages:
Envy is the feeling in a person that lead him to connect other with competition, but when he cannot reach the goal and compete other, he feels envy. The poor always envy to the rich and think they are deprived of all the blessings. However, there is huge different of envy between beggars and rich, as they don’t envy the millionaires but with their same class of beggars. The instability of social status, the equalitarian doctrine of the democracy and socialism have significantly extended the range of envy and now envy has changes the shape of evil that lead the passion of envious people to destruction and havoc. When poor people and poor nations don’t find justice and change of social system, then this brings about the change forcefully.
Q # 5:
Translate the following passage into English:
رنگ و بو کا یہ جہان جسے ہم دنیا کہتے ہیں کس بنیاد پر قائم ہے۔ اگر آپ اس سوال کا ایک لفظی جواب چاہیں تو وہ ہے صداقت۔۔۔۔اس دنیا کی اساس صداقت پر رکھی گئی ہے۔ انسان نے جس ایک اصل سے اپنے کنبے کی تشکیل کی ہے اس صداقت کامظہر اتم ہے۔ یوں انسان، صداقت کا مظہر بھی ہے اور صداقت، انسانیت کا مشترک ورثہ بھی ہے۔ اقبال کے تصور میں ؔ صداقت ایک ایسا تراشا ہوا ہیرا ہے جس کے کئی پہلو ہیں اور اس کے ہر پہلو سے مختلف رنگ کی شعائیں نکل رہی ہیں اور ہر شخص اپنی اپنی پسند کے مطابق کسی رنگ کی شعاع کو اخنتیار کر لیتا ہے اور اپنے نقطہ نگا ہ سے صداقت کو دیکھتا ہے
What is the foundation of this colorful life that is called the world? If you want to find the answer in single word, then it is Truth. The basis of this world is laid on Truth. The man, who established the family from its foundation, was the result of Truth. In this way, a man is not only the witness of truth but also the common inheritance of truth and humanity. In the idealism of Iqbal, “ The truth is such a carved diamond which has many sides and each side of it is scattering different colorful rays and every person is adopting the shape any colorful ray according to his choice and watch the truth according to his point of view .